Nigerian Journal of Dental Research <p>EDITORIAL <br /><br /><br />The Nigerian Journal of Dental Research: Dawn of an Era<br /><br />The Nigerian Journal of Dental Research (NJDR) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal and an official publication of the School of Dentistry, College of Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin-City, Nigeria. Events leading to the birth of NJDR started in 2012, when the School Board of Studies then under the Chairmanship of Professor AA Umweni as the Dean of the School of Dentistry inaugurated a Scientific Committee to organize annual scientific conferences of the School as a means to showcase the various research activities of the faculty members both as individuals and in collaboration with researchers within and outside the University of Benin. <br /><br />It was in 2016, following the adoption of the recommendation of the report of the Scientific Committee that the seed was sown for the NJDR, with my humble self, sitting as the Dean of the School and Chairman of the School Board of Studies. Subsequently membership of the editorial board was approved by the School Board of Studies.<br /><br />On the Occasion of the 5th Annual Scientific Conference, under the Chairmanship of the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Benin, Professor FFO Orumwense FNSE, the birth of the Journal was pronounced in August 2016. With this, the Nigerian Journal of Dental Research joins the few University-based specialist journals in Nigeria, dedicated to disseminating research findings in Dentistry and its subspecialties.<br /><br />The specialties of Dentistry covered include all aspects of a) Diagnostics, Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine &amp; Pathology, b) Dental Therapeutics, c) Endodontics, Prosthodontics &amp; Restorative Dentistry, d) Oral &amp; Maxillofacial Surgery, e) Orthodontics, f) Paedodontics, g) Periodontics, h) Community Dental Health. These various specialties have erudite Professors and scholars as section editors and very quality articles are promised.<br /><br />Two issues of Nigerian Journal of Dental Research will be published annually: in January and July. Original research articles, special review articles, histories and reports of rare and special cases, new sciences, discoveries and innovations in surgical techniques relevant to the study and practice of Dentistry and all related subspecialties will be considered for publication. Preferences shall be given to clinical and translational researches.<br /><br />On behalf of the Editorial Board and the Board of Studies of the School of Dentistry, I present the inaugural issue of the Nigerian Journal of Dental Research with articles focusing on Maxillofacial Surgery, Paedodontics, Periodontics and Community dental health as well as oral health-related quality of life. <br /><br />In this maiden edition, there are one special report (invited), six original research articles and two case reports; Ogunbodede extensively discussed the role of Dentistry in the actualisation of Sustainable Developmental Goals. Onyegum and Ehizele studied tongue coating among undergraduates because of its contribution to oral malodour and found a low prevalence which was neither influenced by age nor sex. Nzomiwu et al. in their prospective study on the impact of oral health conditions on the quality of life (QoL) of preschool aged children reported negative impacts on the QoL of preschool aged children and their parents/caregiver which significantly improved after treatment. <br /><br />Isere and Azodo reported adverse social interaction and relationship effects of halitosis by the dominant non-receptive feelings, negative attitudes, stigmatizing and discriminatory reactions towards halitosis sufferers in their study. Nnawuihe and Okeigbemen assessed dental caries and periodontal disease burden in selected primary and secondary school children in Edo State, Southern Nigeria and recommended school oral health policy to reduce the burden of untreated preventable common oral diseases and the observed inequalities in oral health experience.<br /><br />Soroye and Braimoh in their study on oral health status of children in government and private secondary schools in Lagos State, Nigeria found a higher dental caries prevalence and poorer oral hygiene status among government school children compared to those in private schools. They recommended the need to develop, implement oral health education program and promote oral health among students especially in government schools yet not neglecting those in private schools. Mohammed and Umweni reported that traumatic dental injuries is still a common public health problem and the awareness of treatment of these conditions is still low in their study on prevalence of untreated trauma to anterior permanent teeth in 10-14 years old school children in Benin-City. They recommended that oral health education on prevention and treatment of these injuries should be taught in schools <br /> <br />Orbital floor fracture can result in significant visual impairment and hence may necessitate surgical intervention. Repair of orbital fractures is optimal when undertaken not more than 14 days post injury. The ideal material for orbital floor reconstruction has remained elusive with each having its own advantage and disadvantage. Cost of material, availability and the surgeon's skill and preference are some of the factors influencing the material used for reconstruction. Titanium mesh is one of the preferred materials used for orbital floor fracture repair because of its biocompatibility, malleability and rigidity. Okoturo et al. reported a case of orbital blowout fracture repair with titanium mesh. Umoh and Akhionbare reported a case of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura presenting as gingival bleeding in a periodontal clinic in Benin City, Nigeria. They concluded that this case can help dentists anticipate that some systemic diseases may present first with oral manifestations and high index of suspicion will result in favourable outcome.<br /><br />Finally, we want to thank all our authors, reviewers and indeed members of the editorial team and also express our gratitude to the University and College Management for their support so far. While congratulating the School of Dentistry on this laudable feat of floating a scientific journal, I encourage all dentists and allied professionals particularly the senior academics to seize this opportunity to have their specialists researches/manuscripts reviewed and published. I look forward to an enduring partnership! <br /><br /><br /><br />Professor ON Obuekwe<br />Editor-in-Chief<br /><br /><br /></p> A Peer-reviewed Journal Publication of the School of Dentistry, University of Benin, Benin-City, Nigeria en-US Nigerian Journal of Dental Research 2636-4956 Skeletal Maturation Pattern among Down Syndrome Individuals in Benin, City. Nigeria. <p><strong>Background: </strong>The assessment of skeletal maturity is important in the timing of orthodontic treatment especially in the modification of dento-facial growth. The use of cervical vertebrae as a method of assessment of skeletal maturity has rarely been used among Down Syndrome.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To assess skeletal maturity among individuals with Down Syndrome using the cervical vertebrae maturation stages.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The study was conducted among 21 Down Syndrome with mean ages of 11.70 ± 1.83 years (males) and 13.64 ± 1.75 years (female); and 21 control individuals with mean ages of 12.00 ± 2.00 years (male), and 13.50 ± 1.90 years (female). The independent t-test and chi-square test were used to determine significant differences among the continuous (age) and categorical variables (cervical vertebrae maturation stages) respectively when matched with gender and chronological age. Fischer exact test was used when an expected frequency presentation was &lt;5. A <em>p-</em>value of &lt; 0.05 was set as statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Down Syndrome males had delayed maturation at 11 years but accelerated at 12 with early attainment of maturity at 15 years. Down Syndrome female had a delay tendency in skeletal maturation from 11–15 years of age. Overall, Down Syndrome had a 1.242 probability of either having a delay or advancement in skeletal maturation which was not statistically significant. Conclusively, the skeletal maturation pattern between Down syndrome patients and normal individuals was not statistically different.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The average timing for commencement of orthodontic treatment especially growth modification for normal individuals can be applied for individuals with Down Syndrome as this present study did not show any statistically significant difference in their overall skeletal maturation.<br><br></p> Osaronse Anthony AGHIMIEN Emmanuel Olubusayo AJAYI Idia Nibokun IZE-IYAMU Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-26 2022-01-26 7 1 1 9 Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions and Oral Health-Related Quality of Life among Adolescents in a Rural Nigerian Population <p><strong>Background</strong>: Oral mucosal lesions affect people of all age groups, and vary in presentation; from asymptomatic to severely debilitating. Studies reporting the prevalence and effects of these lesions in adolescents are generally few compared to those describing the demography of dental caries and other oral diseases.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To determine the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions, factors that contribute to the prevalence, and the association with the oral-health related quality of life (OHRQoL) of adolescents in the population.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A cross-sectional survey was done on 240 secondary school students aged 10-19 from three secondary schools selected using multi-stage cluster random sampling. A pre-designed questionnaire was used to collect demographic information, presence of systemic illness, and oral habits. Oral-health related quality of life was assessed using the oral-health impact profile (OHIP-14), and intraoral examination was performed within the school premises by a single trained investigator.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 33 participants (13.7%) had oral mucosal lesions. Overall, commissural lip pits (5.0%) were the most prevalent, while geographic tongue and irritation fibroma (0.4% each) were the least prevalent lesions. The mean OHIP-14 score of the participants in this study was 7.17<u>+</u>8.64. Participants with systemic diseases and cheek biting habits had statistically significant worse scores than those without either.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The most prevalent oral mucosal lesions in the adolescent age group are those of developmental origin. Quality of life was negatively impacted by the presence of systemic diseases as well as cheek biting habit.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Adeola J. AKANDE Omolara G. UTI Oyinkan O. SOFOLA Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-26 2022-01-26 7 1 10 19 Public Health Challenges of Restorative Dental Practice in Low Resource Settings during the Covid-19 Pandemic <p><strong>Background: </strong>COVID-19 remains a major public health threat globally, and has challenged healthcare systems and services including oral health</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study examines the key public health challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic in low resource settings. While healthcare services are learning to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic, dental care services, in particular restorative dental practice have been adversely impacted because of the closeness of caregivers to the patient’s mouth as well as the generation of aerosols during most restorative procedures. This presents a challenge for low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) such as Nigeria where weak and poor governance structures characterize healthcare systems in addition to paucity of economic resources. Another challenge in the form of COVID-19 conspiracy theories has threatened to undermine public health efforts designed to control the pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The implementation of optimal guidelines and safety protocols for effective COVID -19 infection prevention and control is a major challenge for restorative dental care practice in low resource settings owing to paucity of key material resources and inappropriate behaviour associated with lingering doubts about COVID-19 reality among the majority of the populace. The Safer Aerosol-Free Emergent Dentistry concept offers a viable practical approach for restorative dental practice in LMICs during and in the post COVID-19 pandemic era. There is a need to deploy all resources, human and material, in the education and enlightenment of the populace regarding the reality of COVID-19.</p> <p><br><br></p> Ifeoma Nkiruka MENAKAYA Nnamdi Chuks MENAKAYA Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-26 2022-01-26 7 1 20 28 Clinico-Pathological Analysis of Osteomyelitis in Cancrum Oris (Noma) Patients Seen in Noma Children Hospital, Northwest Nigeria <p><strong>Background</strong>: Cancrum oris is a rapid and devastating infectious disease of the orofacial region, which can be life threatening in its fulminant stage. Infection of bone (osteomyelitis) is a possible sequelae of Noma (cancrum oris) and is more likely due to late presentation especially in our environment. A literature search revealed scanty research describing osteomyelitis in Noma patients.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To analyze the clinico–pathology of osteomyelitis in Noma patients diagnosed and treated at Noma Children Hospital, Sokoto.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The design was a 2-year retrospective study of records of Thirty–two patients who had sequestrectomy secondary to osteomyelitis in Noma (Cancrum oris). Age, gender, jaws affected and side of involvement were analyzed</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The age ranged from 2–11 years with mean ±standard deviation 5.47 ± 2.68 years was recorded. Osteomyelitis in Noma patients was found among 17 (53.10%) males compared to 15 (46.90%) females. In 20 (62. 50%) of the cases, anterior maxillary involvement was observed and the remaining 12 (37. 50%) was found at the mandibular posterior region and it is more common on the left side. Result of histopathology showed both acute and chronic inflammatory cells. Necrosis and bone hyperactivity was observed in most of the slides.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Osteomyelitis is a common complication of Noma and its treatment is of paramount importance for adequate management of Noma patients.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Bala MUJTABA Chukwuma Benedict CHIMEZIE Aremu Ibikunle ADEBAYO Abdurrazaq Olanrewaju TAIWO Godwin Ugochukwu NDUBUIZU Abubakar Sadeeq FAWA NDUBUIZU Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-26 2022-01-26 7 1 29 34 COVID 19: Knowledge, opinions and prevention among the populace <p><strong>Objective: </strong>There was a lot of panic when the COVID-19 pandemic started because a lot was not known about it. However, as the disease unfolded, proven scientific universal precautions are recommended to curb its spread.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This was a cross-sectional online survey of people living in Nigeria. Questionnaires were distributed to consenting participants using the SurveyMonkey and data was collected on sociodemographic knowledge of the aetiology and prevention of COVID-19. Analysis was done with the SPSS version 25.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Eighty-five participants with age ranging from 18 to 60 years took part in the study. The mean age was 37.35 ± 11.7years. Forty-seven (47%) had knowledge that COVID-19 infection is from a virus. 29.4% thought it is caused by biological weapons, 1.2% from 5G internet, 7.1% as government’s ploy to embezzle money and 9.4% conspiracy theory from the world leaders to reduce world’s population. All participants knew that hand washing is a preventive measure against the spread of COVID-19 and majority agreed to the use of sanitizers, social distancing and disinfection of surfaces. Only 30.6% agreed that wearing of facemasks will serve as a preventive measure. Over 90% of the participants agreed that dissemination of appropriate information, use of universal precautions, isolation and intensive treatment of those infected can help prevent the spread of COVID-19. 11.8% of participants knew that additional precautions are needed for aerosol generating procedures.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The knowledge of COVID-19 aetiology is poor among the populace and the need to wear face masks as a preventive measure in curtailing the spread of COVID-19 needs to be emphasized.</p> Modupeoluwa Omotunde SOROYE Babatope Bamidele OSAGBEMIRO Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-26 2022-01-26 7 1 35 44 Evaluation of patients’ compliance to recall visits after tooth extraction at the Dental Centre, University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH): A two-year retrospective study <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study aims to evaluate the level of patients’ compliance with recall / follow-up visits attending the dental Centre of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH).</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study adopted a descriptive retrospective study of case notes retrieved from the medical records department of the dental Centre, University of Benin Teaching Hospital. The period under study covers 2019 to 2021. The data was collected by means of 1232 questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentages.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The result showed that the participants in the age bracket of 18-40 years of age (277) complied better to recall visit in comparison with the study age distributions which are 41-65 years (218) and age above 65 years (188). As per the influence of gender on compliance of patients with post-extraction recall visits, it was observed that the male participants (288) responded better to the recall visits compared to the female participants (251). The Relationship between distance away from the hospital and compliance of patients with post-extraction recall visits was also evaluated, and it was observed that the patients closer to the hospital within 5km (442) complied better to recall revisit in comparison to the participants who were within 10km (224) from the hospital as well as the participants that were 10km &amp; above (17). Finally, the influence of interval between procedure and recall visit was also evaluated, and the result revealed that the participants that were given 7 days of recall revisit (663) complied better compared with the participants who were given 14days duration for recall revisit (478).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The data from this study highlighted the possible need for a paradigm shift in patient-doctor interphase especially as it concerns recall visits. Compliance to recall appointment by the patients depends largely on age, gender, distance from hospital and interval between procedures and is mainly responsible for the noncompliance of patients to recall visit.</p> Owen Stephen OMOROGBE Osazee kelvin ORHUE Edorisiagbon OSAYANDE Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-24 2022-06-24 7 1 45 52 Aetiology and presentation pattern of mandibular fractures at the State Dental Hospital in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. <p><strong>Background:</strong> The mandible is the biggest and the main bone occupying the lower third of the face, and it is prone to fracture because of its prominence. Fracture of the mandible is more common in some major parts such as, the angle, the canine region, and the condylar neck due to its weakness in those regions.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To analyse the aetiology and presentation pattern of mandibular fractures at the State Dental Hospital in Maiduguri</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a retrospective-prospective descriptive study approved by the Ethical Review Board of Borno State Ministry of Health. A total number of 956 facial fracture cases, which included both old cases retrieved from the record book and new cases seen during the period under review, was recorded. Out of this total, 252 mandibular fracture cases were seen during the seven-year period at the State Dental Hospital in Maiduguri. The patients seen were examined clinically and radiographically by a team of three independent dental surgeons after calibration was done by a consultant oral and maxillofacial surgeon. All patients and cases included in the study were properly briefed and informed consent taken prior to carrying out the study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 956 facial fractures were recorded: 252 cases were mandibular fractures, accounting for a prevalence 26.4%. Males accounted for 76.2% and females 23.8% with a male to female ratio of 3.2:1. Age range was 11-60yrs with a mean age of 27.7yrs. Those aged 21-30yrs showed the highest level of distribution in the sampled cases, and most of the fractures occurred on weekends, especially Friday which accounted for 34.4% of cases. The major aetiology of most fracture is road traffic accident in 122(48.8%) cases and the body (44.8%) of the mandible was noted as the most commonly affected site.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Although road traffic accident appeared to be the major aetiology of mandibular fracture in this study, a substantial part of assault related causes are due to blast related injuries to the mandible. The age distribution, sex, location and treatment modalities still remain the same.<br><br></p> Mathew Ekhaleafo OGBEZODE Emmanuel Akinwumi OROMAKINDE Faith Nonyelum NGENE Ibrahim Kayode SULEIMAN Kabiru IDRIS Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-26 2022-01-26 7 1 53 59 Salivary Lactoferrin Levels, Disease Severity and Correlates in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis Presenting to a Tertiary Health Facility in Nigeria. <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study compared the concentration of salivary lactoferrin in patients with and without chronic periodontitis and investigated correlations with clinical variables of the disease.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study included 102 participants (51 cases and 51 controls) who presented at the Periodontology Clinic of University of Benin Teaching Hospital and met the selection criteria of ‘4mm and above’ periodontal probing depths (PPD) and positive bleeding on probing (BOP) using community periodontal index (CPI) probe. Healthy participants (controls) were patients that had PPD less than or equal to 3mm, absence of BOP and simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S) not more than 1.2. Baseline OHI-S and CPI scores were recorded. Saliva samples were collected and analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All data were analyzed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>There was a statistically significant difference between the mean (SD) lactoferrin concentration of control participants 5.27(0.59) mg/l and case participants 6.74(0.61) mg/l (p&lt;0.001). Participants with probing pocket depths (PPD) of 6mm or more had a significantly higher mean concentration [6.85(0.06) mg/l] than that of those with PPD 4-5mm [6.71(0.67) mg/l] (p &lt; 0.001) Lactoferrin levels were highest in participants with ‘poor’ oral hygiene [6.85(0.60) mg/l] and lowest in those with ‘good’ oral hygiene [6.65(0.83) mg/l].</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Salivary lactoferrin levels were higher among participants with chronic periodontitis than those without chronic periodontitis and correlates positively with the main clinical characteristics of the disease<br><br></p> Vera Eigbibhalu ORHUE Adebola Oluyemisi EHIZELE Osagie AKHIONBARE Patrick OJEHANON Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-26 2022-01-26 7 1 60 66 Prevalence of Incidental Dental Anomalies seen on Pre-Treatment Digital Panoramic Radiographs of a Group of Nigerian Orthodontic Patients: A Retrospective Study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Radiographs are used by orthodontists in the diagnosis of malocclusion, treatment planning and monitoring. These usually reveal presence of dental anomalies that may require further assessment and management.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To investigate the prevalence, types and distribution of dental anomalies seen on the orthopantomograms (OPGs) of orthodontic patients at the University of Port-Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH).</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a retrospective cross-sectional radiographic study of a cohort of orthodontic patients who presented to the Department of Child Dental Health, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, Nigeria. The data gathered from digital orthopantomograms of the patients was analysed using IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Statistics for Windows version 25.0.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study comprised 249 patients with an age range of 5-44years (mean age of 14.6±7.7years) comprising 108 (43.4%) males and 141 (56.6%) females. Seventy (28.1%) [(29, 41.4% males), (41, 58.6% females)] of the patients had at least one dental anomaly. Dental anomalies were commonest (48, 68.6%) within 10-19 years age bracket followed by the 0-9 years age bracket (11, 15.7%). The most frequent dental anomaly was taurodontism (43, 61.4%), followed by congenitally missing teeth (8, 11.4%), supernumerary teeth (5, 7.1%), odontoma (4, 5.7%), peg shaped lateral incisors and transposition (2, 2.9%) respectively. Dental anomalies were more frequent in the maxilla (43, 61.4%).&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The most common dental anomaly was taurodontism. Anomalies were more frequent in female than male patients and in the maxilla than in the mandible.<br><br></p> Elfleda Angelina AIKINS Chinyere UTUTU Emmanuel Ifeanyi CHUKWUMA Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-26 2022-01-26 7 1 67 74 Oral hygiene status, interdental cleaning and perception of gingival bleeding among a group of pregnant women in Nigeria <p><strong>Background: </strong>Hormonal and vascular changes in pregnancy can lead to exaggeration of inflammatory response to local irritants like dental plaque causing pregnancy gingivitis which if not treated can result in advanced periodontal diseases and consequent adverse pregnancy outcomes.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To assess the oral hygiene and gingival bleeding perception of pregnant women</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data. Oral hygiene status and gingival status were assessed with Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) and gingival bleeding index respectively. Data was analysed using IBM SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) version 25. Results were presented in frequency and percentages and chi square analysis done for the categorical variables with statistical significance set at P &lt; 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>One hundred and fifty-one participants with age range of 20 to 43 years with a mean age of 29.85±4.05years participated in the study. All participants used toothbrush to clean their teeth and 44.4% used medium bristled toothbrush. Two-third used herbal toothpaste. More than two-thirds (84.1%) of the participants used both horizontal and vertical tooth brushing technique. Only 33.8% brushed twice daily. Though 92.1% claimed to clean interdentally, only 19.4% used dental floss.&nbsp; Prevalence of gingival bleeding was 31.8%. Two persons (1.3%) thought it normal to bleed from the gum while brushing and 86.8% did not know one can bleed from the gum during pregnancy Forty-four (29.1%) and 18(11.9%) of participants had fair and poor oral hygiene status respectively. 55.6% bled on probing and had gingival bleeding index of 1 and 2. Four (2.6%) of participants had gingival recession measuring 3mm to 4mm and 8.6% had halitosis. Statistical analysis of the association between participants’ perception of gum bleeding and oral hygiene status showed statistical significance.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The knowledge of pregnancy gingivitis is poor among the participants. There is the need to educate them about this and incorporate periodontal care into antenatal care so as to increase their quality of life during pregnancy.<br><br></p> Modupeoluwa Omotunde SOROYE Olubunmi Omotunde ONIGBINDE Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-26 2022-01-26 7 1 75 82