Nigerian Journal of Dental Research <p>EDITORIAL <br /><br />The Nigerian Journal of Dental Research: Dawn of an Era<br /><br />The Nigerian Journal of Dental Research (NJDR) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal and an official publication of the School of Dentistry, College of Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin-City, Nigeria. Events leading to the birth of NJDR started in 2012, when the School Board of Studies then under the Chairmanship of Professor AA Umweni as the Dean of the School of Dentistry inaugurated a Scientific Committee to organize annual scientific conferences of the School as a means to showcase the various research activities of the faculty members both as individuals and in collaboration with researchers within and outside the University of Benin. <br /><br />It was in 2016, following the adoption of the recommendation of the report of the Scientific Committee that the seed was sown for the NJDR, with my humble self, sitting as the Dean of the School and Chairman of the School Board of Studies. Subsequently membership of the editorial board was approved by the School Board of Studies.<br /><br />On the Occasion of the 5th Annual Scientific Conference, under the Chairmanship of the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Benin, Professor FFO Orumwense FNSE, the birth of the Journal was pronounced in August 2016. With this, the Nigerian Journal of Dental Research joins the few University-based specialist journals in Nigeria, dedicated to disseminating research findings in Dentistry and its subspecialties.<br /><br />The specialties of Dentistry covered include all aspects of a) Diagnostics, Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine &amp; Pathology, b) Dental Therapeutics, c) Endodontics, Prosthodontics &amp; Restorative Dentistry, d) Oral &amp; Maxillofacial Surgery, e) Orthodontics, f) Paedodontics, g) Periodontics, h) Community Dental Health. These various specialties have erudite Professors and scholars as section editors and very quality articles are promised.<br /><br />Two issues of Nigerian Journal of Dental Research will be published annually: in January and July. Original research articles, special review articles, histories and reports of rare and special cases, new sciences, discoveries and innovations in surgical techniques relevant to the study and practice of Dentistry and all related subspecialties will be considered for publication. Preferences shall be given to clinical and translational researches.<br /><br />On behalf of the Editorial Board and the Board of Studies of the School of Dentistry, I present the inaugural issue of the Nigerian Journal of Dental Research with articles focusing on Maxillofacial Surgery, Paedodontics, Periodontics and Community dental health as well as oral health-related quality of life. <br /><br />In this maiden edition, there are one special report (invited), six original research articles and two case reports; Ogunbodede extensively discussed the role of Dentistry in the actualisation of Sustainable Developmental Goals. Onyegum and Ehizele studied tongue coating among undergraduates because of its contribution to oral malodour and found a low prevalence which was neither influenced by age nor sex. Nzomiwu et al. in their prospective study on the impact of oral health conditions on the quality of life (QoL) of preschool aged children reported negative impacts on the QoL of preschool aged children and their parents/caregiver which significantly improved after treatment. <br /><br />Isere and Azodo reported adverse social interaction and relationship effects of halitosis by the dominant non-receptive feelings, negative attitudes, stigmatizing and discriminatory reactions towards halitosis sufferers in their study. Nnawuihe and Okeigbemen assessed dental caries and periodontal disease burden in selected primary and secondary school children in Edo State, Southern Nigeria and recommended school oral health policy to reduce the burden of untreated preventable common oral diseases and the observed inequalities in oral health experience.<br /><br />Soroye and Braimoh in their study on oral health status of children in government and private secondary schools in Lagos State, Nigeria found a higher dental caries prevalence and poorer oral hygiene status among government school children compared to those in private schools. They recommended the need to develop, implement oral health education program and promote oral health among students especially in government schools yet not neglecting those in private schools. Mohammed and Umweni reported that traumatic dental injuries is still a common public health problem and the awareness of treatment of these conditions is still low in their study on prevalence of untreated trauma to anterior permanent teeth in 10-14 years old school children in Benin-City. They recommended that oral health education on prevention and treatment of these injuries should be taught in schools <br /> <br />Orbital floor fracture can result in significant visual impairment and hence may necessitate surgical intervention. Repair of orbital fractures is optimal when undertaken not more than 14 days post injury. The ideal material for orbital floor reconstruction has remained elusive with each having its own advantage and disadvantage. Cost of material, availability and the surgeon's skill and preference are some of the factors influencing the material used for reconstruction. Titanium mesh is one of the preferred materials used for orbital floor fracture repair because of its biocompatibility, malleability and rigidity. Okoturo et al. reported a case of orbital blowout fracture repair with titanium mesh. Umoh and Akhionbare reported a case of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura presenting as gingival bleeding in a periodontal clinic in Benin City, Nigeria. They concluded that this case can help dentists anticipate that some systemic diseases may present first with oral manifestations and high index of suspicion will result in favourable outcome.<br /><br />Finally, we want to thank all our authors, reviewers and indeed members of the editorial team and also express our gratitude to the University and College Management for their support so far. While congratulating the School of Dentistry on this laudable feat of floating a scientific journal, I encourage all dentists and allied professionals particularly the senior academics to seize this opportunity to have their specialists researches/manuscripts reviewed and published. I look forward to an enduring partnership! <br /><br /><br /><br />Professor ON Obuekwe<br />Editor-in-Chief<br /><br /><br /></p> A Peer-reviewed Journal Publication of the School of Dentistry, University of Benin, Benin-City, Nigeria en-US Nigerian Journal of Dental Research 2636-4956 Impacted Toothbrush in the Oropharynx: A Case Report <p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p>Foreign body impaction in the throat is a common presentation in the Ear, Nose and Throat emergency room and may be associated with dare consequences.</p> <p><strong>C</strong><strong>ase Report</strong></p> <p>A nineteen-month-old female was rushed to the Accident and Emergency Unit, University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City with a history of foreign body in the throat of three hours duration. Examination revealed a broken toothbrush impacted the posterior oropharyngeal wall.</p> <p>She had impacted foreign body removed under local anaesthesia.</p> <p><strong>C</strong><strong>onclusion</strong></p> <p>Foreign bodies in the throat can be fatal if not promptly managed. Impacted toothbrush in the throat could be life-threatening due to respiratory embarrassment. Therefore, a good toothbrush should be used, caution should be taken while brushing and toddlers should have their teeth brushed by adults.</p> <p>, throat, toothbrush, oropharynx, impaction.</p> Eustace Eromosele OSEGHALE OSEGHALE Emmanuel OKOEGUALE Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-14 2022-08-14 7 2 83 85 Bilateral Mucous Retention Cyst of the Submandibular Salivary Gland: A Rare Unusual Presentation and Review of the Literature. <p><strong>Background</strong>: Mucous Retention Cyst (MRC) are non-neoplastic, developmental salivary gland lesion. Although more common in the minor salivary gland, few cases have been reported in the major salivary gland.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To draw the attention of clinicians to a rare occurrence of MRC in the submandibular gland bilaterally.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Case Report:</strong> The index case presents as a slowly progressive painless lesion of 10 years duration associated with aesthetics concerns. The lesion appeared as a double jaw with extension into the neck. Though lobulated and fluctuant, aspirate yielded yellow coloured, non-viscous and non-foul smelling fluid. Ultrasonography revealed a multilobulated mass with mobile heterogeneous fluid-like content in the submental and submandibular regions bilaterally. The massive size of the lesion limited the ultrasonic visualization of the submandibular salivary glands. The patient could not afford advanced imaging. During surgery, the lesion had involved the submandibular gland bilaterally with attachment to the hyoid bone and in close relation to the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Although the nerve was preserved, the patient experienced temporary hoarseness, which resolved with medication. Histopathologic examination of the excised lesion revealed the lesion as Mucous Retention Cyst.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The massive size of the lesion, delayed presentation and financial constraints in obtaining advanced imaging could have contributed to the diagnostic dilemma. This rare case will help the clinicians include MRC as a differential diagnosis of lesions involving submandibular salivary gland bilaterally. It also draws the attention of the maxillofacial surgeons to the unexpected injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve and its management in a low-income setting environment.</p> Adewale Francis ADEJOBI Olawunmi Adedoyin FATUSI Azuka Raphael NJOKANMA Ayodele Gbenga AKOMOLAFE Abiodun Saheed OLATUNJI Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-14 2022-08-14 7 2 86 91 Considerations in Complications Arising from the Management of Pemphigus Vulgaris: A Case Report <p><strong>Background: </strong>This paper reports a case of pemphigus vulgaris in a middle-aged male with oral lesions and skin eruptions</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To highlight the complications of prolonged steroid therapy.</p> <p><strong>Case Report</strong></p> <p>A 48-year-old male presented with an eight-month history of recurrent mouth ulcers. There was positive history of cutaneous ulcers on the upper extremities, back and genital areas. Patient had been placed on long term steroid therapy prescribed by general practitioners. General examination showed bilateral pitting pedal oedema, moon face and low blood pressure. Intra-oral examination revealed multiple irregular shaped ulcers and erosions with erythematous floor on the buccal mucosa, labial mucosa, floor of the mouth, soft palate and anterior pillar fauces. The dorsum of the tongue had areas of ulcerations with necrotic slough. An impression of pemphigus vulgaris was made based on high index of clinical suspicion and patient was commenced on azathioprine 50mg and prednisolone 40mg daily for a week. Topical use of clobetasol ointment (0.05%) was also commenced to be applied twice daily. There was improvement with the oral lesions on a one-week review. The dose of prednisolone was then stepped down to 20mg daily for one week and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouth rinse twice daily was introduced.</p> <p>Punch biopsy of an intact labial mucosa was done on a subsequent visit and histopathology examination confirmed the diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris. Patient was referred to the cardiologist on account of the hypotension and bilateral pedal oedema which was suggestive of complications of long-standing steroid use.</p> <p>Patient was placed on maintenance dose of prednisolone 10mg and azathioprine 50mg daily, and topical steroid oral rinse.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study reports a case of pemphigus vulgaris with oral and skin lesions in a middle-aged male. Patient developed some complications due to the prolonged duration of steroid therapy. Regular patient monitoring, adjustment of steroid therapy combined with adjuncts like steroid-sparing drugs are essential to minimizing the steroid-induced adverse effect</p> Izegboya Vivian UKPEBOR Mercy OKOH Nonso Emmanuel ONYIA Eze Stephen NWAUZOR Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-14 2022-08-14 7 2 92 96 Extended Orbital Exenteration: Proposal for Modification of Meyer and Zaoli’s Classification <p><strong>Background: </strong>The orbital exenteration classification by Meyer and Zaoli has become popular in the literature as a means whereby clinicians present exenteration procedures. Although Meyer and Zaoli’s classification is adopted in our practice</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To propose a modification of Mayer and Zaoli’s classification to accommodate cases of orbital exenteration where one or both eyelids will be spared.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A retrospective study of cases of maxillary tumours treated with maxillectomy and orbital exenteration over a 13 years period (January 2005- December 2017) in a Nigerian tertiary health facility.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>They were 14 maxillectomies with orbital exenteration out of 91 maxillectomies carried out within the study period. There were more males (71.4%) than females (28.6%) and the age range was between 5 to 72 years (mean of 42.57 years, the median age was 45 years). Based on Meyer and Zaoli’s classification of orbital exenteration, 5 cases were classed as type IV, nine cases, however, could not be classified as they met all other requirements for classification as type IV except for the eyelid preservation which cannot be accounted for in Meyer and Zaoli’s classification</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Modification of Mayer and Zaoli’s classification to accommodate orbital exenteration cases where one or both eyelids were spared will make it more complete and exhaustive</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Benjamin FOMETE Kelvin Uchenna OMEJE Rowland AGBARA Ezekiel ADEBAYO Ernest IKHEKUAMEN Olusola AMOLE Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-14 2022-08-14 7 2 97 102 Awareness of Medical Practitioners on the Link between Periodontitis and Systemic Diseases in a Tertiary Hospital <p><strong>Background: </strong>It has been established that periodontitis is linked to some systemic conditions. It is therefore important for medical doctors to be aware of the association between this oral disease and systemic conditions so that they can refer their patients with dental needs, for supportive dental therapy. It is not yet clear how this link is understood or perceived among medical practitioners and there are limited studies in the literature on this, particularly in the South-South region of Nigeria&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To assess awareness of the association between periodontitis and systemic conditions among medical practitioners and elicit the history of dental referral for supportive therapy.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study, conducted among medical practitioners working at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), Rivers State, Nigeria. Data collection (socio-demographic variables, level of awareness of the link between periodontitis and systemic diseases and history of dental referrals) was carried out using a semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire. The level of awareness was categorized as follows: limited (? 1 systemic disease associated with periodontitis), Fair (2-3 systemic diseases associated with periodontitis) and Good (? 4 systemic diseases associated with periodontitis). SPSS version 25.0 was used for statistical analysis, the p-value was considered significant at ? 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 162 out of 250 distributed questionnaires (64.8%) were analyzed. Majority (78.4%) of the participants had a limited level of awareness of the link between periodontitis and systemic diseases while 18.5% and 3.1% of the participants had fair and good levels of awareness respectively. Only 26.5% of the participants had referred patients to the dental clinic for supportive therapy</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The level of awareness of the association between periodontal disease and systemic conditions among medical doctors in this study was limited</p> Grace Onyenashia ALADE Babatope Bamidele OSAGBEMIRO Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-14 2022-08-14 7 2 103 109 Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Health Care Workers towards NOMA in a Tertiary Institution in North-western Nigeria <p><strong>Background</strong>: NOMA is a potentially life-threatening necrotizing condition characterized by the destruction of oral and perioral tissues. NOMA is fatal in 90% of cases but the rate is reduced to about 8% with early recognition and treatment.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices of health workers towards Noma in a tertiary teaching hospital in north-western Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This was a cross-sectional study carried out among health care personnel using a self-administered questionnaire between October 2019 and February 2020. The questionnaire consisted of 20 questions covering the domains of knowledge and, attitude/practices. The total score for each domain was obtained and then categorized as low (less than or equal to 50%), fair (51 to 69%), and good (70% and above).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 156 respondents filled and returned the questionnaires. Male respondents constituted 103(66%) as against 53(34%) Female respondents. The age range of respondents was 19 –54 years with a mean±SD of 32.8±6.6 years. Out of 156 respondents, 123(78.8%) were aware of Noma. The total score recorded in both the knowledge and attitude/practice domains were 72.5% and 47.5% respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The awareness of Noma among the study population was good. Those that were aware of the disease have good knowledge of it, however, the attitude and practices were low. Therefore, there is a need for continuous medical education among health care workers.</p> Bala MUJTABA Chukwuma Benedict CHIMEZIE Ramat Oyebunmi BRAIMAH Abdurrazaq Olanrewaju TAIWO Ibikunle Aremu ADEBAYO Godwin Ugochukwu NDUBUIZU Bruno ILE-OGEDENGBE Rufai JAAFARU Abubakar Muhammad KAURA Abubakar Sadeeq FAWA Yekini ALANI Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-14 2022-08-14 7 2 110 115 Assessment of the Knowledge of Infectious Diseases and Their mode of Transmission Among Dental Health Care Personnel in a Tertiary Health Institution in Southern Nigeria <p><strong>Background: </strong>Dental Health Care Personnel (DHCP) and clinical students in training are constantly exposed to saliva and oral fluids in the course of carrying out oral health care procedures. For optimum observance of infection control protocols, there is a need for adequate and appropriate knowledge of infectious agents and their mode of transmission in order to prevent cross infection in a dental clinic setting.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To determine the level of knowledge of infectious agents transmissible in a dental clinic among dental health care personnel and final year clinical students and nurses in a tertiary health facility<u>.</u></p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This paper is a cross-sectional descriptive study which used a well-structured self-administered questionnaire. A convenient sampling technique was applied and a total of 111 DHCP and final year clinical students and nurses were recruited into the study. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) version 16 (IBM, Chicago, IL, USA).&nbsp; Bivariate analysis showed that the dentist cadre had the best level of knowledge of infectious agents transmissible in dental clinics. This, however, was not statistically significant p=0.298</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of one hundred and eleven respondents, ages ranging from 15 to 55 years and with a mean age of 31.0±5.5 participated in this study. More than two-third 75(67.6%) of the respondents were dental surgeons and the least 2(1.8%) were the dental hygienist. More males 63(56.8%) participated in the study and most respondents 107(96.4%) were Christians. Fifty-five (49%) had good knowledge, 9(8.1%) had fair knowledge, and 47(42.3%) had poor knowledge of infectious diseases/conditions transmissible in dentistry. Respondents’ status was not a determinant of the level of knowledge, p=0.298.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The average knowledge of the DHCP, final year clinical students and dental student nurses in this study was good, but their knowledge about HDV and infectious bacteria in dental unit water was poor.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> knowledge, infectious agents, Dental Health Care Personnel, Dental clinic.</p> Yvonne Osaretin MABIAKU Tagberetse Oghenegare MABIAKU Alphonsus Rukevwe ISARAH Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-14 2022-08-14 7 2 116 122 Prevalence of dental caries among children and young adults with disabilities attending a special needs school in Sokoto, Nigeria <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To determine the prevalence of dental caries among children and young adults with disabilities attending a special needs school in Sokoto, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey among children and young adults with disabilities attending a special needs school in Sokoto, Nigeria. Data collected were the social demographic and dental caries status of the participants. Data were analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 23.0. The socio-demographic characteristics, as well as the dental caries prevalence of the participants, were determined using descriptive statistics. The results were presented in frequency tables and charts. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered significant.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Prevalence of caries was 35.6%. Participants with hearing impairment had the highest caries prevalence (16.5%, n= 39). The highest caries prevalence per age group was amongst the 20 years and above age group (50.0%), followed by the 6-12year old group (46.2%). The Pearson chi-square test result for prevalence per age group was statistically significant (p= 0.029). Analysis by grade (class) showed a higher prevalence in the primary school section (39.3%) than in the secondary school section.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The prevalence of dental caries was 35.6%.&nbsp; It was significantly higher in the hearing and intellectually impaired groups than in their visually and physically impaired counterparts. Also, it was higher among the age group 20 years and above than in other age groups.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mike Eghosa OGBEIDE Gabriel Oseremen OGBEBOR Sunny Ajimen OKEIGBEMEN Abdurrazaq Olanrewaju TAIWO Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-14 2022-08-14 7 2 123 131