Skeletal Maturation Pattern among Down Syndrome Individuals in Benin, City. Nigeria.


  • Osaronse Anthony AGHIMIEN
  • Emmanuel Olubusayo AJAYI
  • Idia Nibokun IZE-IYAMU


Skeletal maturity, Cervical Vertebrae Maturation, Down syndrome


Background: The assessment of skeletal maturity is important in the timing of orthodontic treatment especially in the modification of dento-facial growth. The use of cervical vertebrae as a method of assessment of skeletal maturity has rarely been used among Down Syndrome.

Objective: To assess skeletal maturity among individuals with Down Syndrome using the cervical vertebrae maturation stages.

Methods: The study was conducted among 21 Down Syndrome with mean ages of 11.70 ± 1.83 years (males) and 13.64 ± 1.75 years (female); and 21 control individuals with mean ages of 12.00 ± 2.00 years (male), and 13.50 ± 1.90 years (female). The independent t-test and chi-square test were used to determine significant differences among the continuous (age) and categorical variables (cervical vertebrae maturation stages) respectively when matched with gender and chronological age. Fischer exact test was used when an expected frequency presentation was <5. A p-value of < 0.05 was set as statistically significant.

Results: Down Syndrome males had delayed maturation at 11 years but accelerated at 12 with early attainment of maturity at 15 years. Down Syndrome female had a delay tendency in skeletal maturation from 11–15 years of age. Overall, Down Syndrome had a 1.242 probability of either having a delay or advancement in skeletal maturation which was not statistically significant. Conclusively, the skeletal maturation pattern between Down syndrome patients and normal individuals was not statistically different. 

Conclusion: The average timing for commencement of orthodontic treatment especially growth modification for normal individuals can be applied for individuals with Down Syndrome as this present study did not show any statistically significant difference in their overall skeletal maturation.

Author Biographies

Osaronse Anthony AGHIMIEN

Orthodontic unit, Dental Surgery Department, Federal Medical Centre, Keffi. Nasarawa State         


Emmanuel Olubusayo AJAYI

Department of  Preventive  Dentistry, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State Nigeria]

Idia Nibokun IZE-IYAMU

Department of  Preventive  Dentistry, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State Nigeria]






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